Last week we discussed cavity nesters; this week we’ll write about the great variety of birds that are common on Seabrook and make their nests in places other than cavities. The birds range in size from the tiny hummingbird to the Wild Turkey. There are really too many to cover in detail so we’ll focus on several that most of you know: the Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Painted Bunting, Barn Swallow, American Crow and Wild Turkey.
First, the answers to the teaser – Where do I nest?
1= American Crow, 2=Painted Bunting, 3=Wild Turkey, 4=Barn Swallow, 5=Ruby-throated Hummingbird. Now for more details about these nesters.
The Ruby-throated Hummingbird makes its way up from its winter home in more southern climets to nest somewhere in the eastern half of the U.S including on Seabrook Island. The male fertilizes the egg but takes no part from then on. Usually, the female chooses a nesting site in any of a variety of shade trees in a mixed woodland near water. On average, she picks a location 10-20 feet high in the tree. She builds a tiny nest, 1-1¾” in diameter, and affixes it firmly to a twig or small branch using spider silk. The nest will probably be sheltered above by leafy branches but open from below. The female uses plant down, fibers and bud scales on the inside and covers the outside with greenish-gray lichens. She then lays two eggs which she will incubate and care for. She may even have more than one nest at the same time.
The Painted Bunting’s nest will usually be in a bush, low tree, or tangle of vines, 3-6’ off the ground. However, it may also be as high as 19’ up in a mass of Spanish moss. Again, it’s the female that does most of the work, building, incubating and feeding. The nest is a shallow cup, carefully made of woven grasses, weed stems and leaves. She may have up to three broods a year. While she is incubating the eggs in one nest, she may start a second nest nearby. Once she is ready to lay her eggs in the second nest, the male will take over caring for the first nest.
Both the hummingbird and the bunting are solitary nesters. In contrast, the Barn Swallow often nests in colonies. The male and female work together, building the nest about 5” in diameter and incubating 4 to 5 eggs. They locate the nest under a bridge or wharf or in a barn or boat house. It is constructed of mud and straw and plastered to the structure then lined with feathers. The Barn Swallows produce one or two broods each season.
Then there is the American Crow. The crow is not as choosy as many birds. It builds its nest in forests or parks, picking one of many kinds of trees, deciduous or coniferous. Because the nest is large, the crow usually places it in the crotch of the tree or near the trunk for support, anywhere from 10 to 75 feet from the ground. Both sexes work on the nest which is a large basket composed of sticks, twigs, bark and vines. It measures an average of 26” in diameter. The female then lays from 3 to 8 eggs (averaging 4 to 6) and both incubate and care for the chicks.
Finally, we have the Wild Turkey. As most of you have probably noticed, there are a lot of them on the island and, as you might guess, they do nest here. By nature, turkeys form harems, with one male and many females. The male services the females and they do the rest. They find a dry spot on the ground in a forested area and make a depression in the leaves for a nest. Each female has only one brood a season but lays 8-15 eggs which she then incubates and raises.
If you are interested in more information, there are books on the subject and, of course, information on the internet.
Article Submitted by: Marcia Hider
Photographs by: Ed Konrad and others